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History Notes Akbar (Jallaluddin Muhammad Akbar) UPSC and APSC

  • When Humayun passed away, young Akbar, just thirteen years old, found himself in Punjab at Kalanaur. It was there, in 1556, that he was crowned, surrounded by the sights and sounds of Kalanaur itself.

  • During his early years as ruler, Akbar's trusted tutor and his father's close confidant, Bairam Khan, acted as regent from 1556 to 1560, guiding the empire with wisdom and care.

  • As Akbar grew, so did the reach of the Mughal Empire. With Bairam Khan by his side, the first four years of his reign witnessed the expansion of Mughal territory from Kabul to Jaunpur, encompassing Gwalior and Ajmer.

  • One of the remarkable achievements during this time was the defeat of Hemu and his Afghan forces in the second battle of Panipat in 1556. This victory secured the Mughal Empire against significant threats.

History Notes of Akbar's Military Triumphs UPSC:

  • In 1562, Malwa was won over from Baz Bahadur, who then joined Akbar's court.

  • The Gondwana region fell after a fierce confrontation with Rani Durgavati and her son Vir Narayan in 1564.

  • Gujarat came under Mughal control in 1573 after a successful campaign against Muzaffar Shah, leading to the establishment of the new capital, Fatehpur Sikri.

  • In 1576, the Mughal army, led by Man Singh, defeated Rana Pratap Singh at the Battle of Haldighati, securing Mewar's submission.

  • Daud Khan, ruler of Bihar and Bengal, was defeated in 1576, bringing both provinces into the Mughal fold.

  • Khandesh was occupied by Akbar's forces in 1591, further expanding the empire's reach.

  • Chand Bibi valiantly defended Ahmednagar against Mughal forces.

  • History Notes of Akbar's Military Triumphs UPSC:

Rajput Policy:

  • Akbar's approach towards the Rajputs was marked by diplomacy and alliance.

  • He cemented ties by marrying the daughter of Raja Bharamal, fostering a lasting relationship.

  • Over generations, Rajputs served the Mughals loyally, with many rising to prominent positions in the administration.

Religious Policy:

  • Akbar's religious policy aimed at fostering harmony and inclusivity.

  • He abolished the pilgrim tax and the jiziya, and initiated discussions at Ibadat Khana, his house of worship in Fatehpur Sikri.

  • Scholars from various faiths were invited, leading to the promulgation of Din Ilahi, a religion that embraced the virtues of multiple faiths.

  • Akbar propagated Sulh-i-Kul, advocating peace and tolerance.

  • Though his religious experiments faced criticism, they were guided by the wisdom of Sheikh Mubarak and the counsel of Abul Faizi.


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