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Current Affairs 12/04/2023


  1. Policy for Indian Space in 2023

  2. Genome India Project

  3. Preventive detentions

  4. System for Monitoring the Hydrological Status and Future Forecasts (HydroSOS)

Policy for Indian Space in 2023


The Cabinet Committee on Security has given their stamp of approval to the Indian Space Policy 2023.

ISRO will concentrate its efforts on the research and development of cutting-edge space technologies as a result of this policy, which aims to institutionalise the participation of the private sector in the space sector.


The Third Grade: Space

The following are the article's dimensions:

Provisions of Primary Importance in the Indian Space Policy 2023

  • The Present Situation Regarding India's Aerospace Industry

  • The Obstacles Facing the Space Industry

  • Provisions of Primary Importance in the Indian Space Policy 2023

The Indian Space Policy 2023 encourages participation from the private sector and outlines the roles and responsibilities of key players in the Indian space sector. The following is a list of the most important aspects of the policy:

Clarity in Space Reforms: The policy intends to provide clarity in space reforms and encourage private industry participation in order to drive the opportunity for the country's economy to expand into space.

The policy lays out the roles and responsibilities of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), the space sector public sector undertaking NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), and the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center (IN-SPACe).

NSIL: Strategic endeavours relating to the aerospace industry will be carried out by NSIL, which will function in a demand-driven manner.

IN-SPACe: IN-SPACe will serve as the interface between the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and non-governmental organisations.

ISRO: ISRO will direct its efforts towards the research and development of new technologies as well as the creation of new systems. ISRO's operational responsibilities are going to be transferred to NewSpace India Limited in the near future.

Participation of the Private Sector: The policy will make it possible for members of the private sector to take part in the entire spectrum of space activities, from the construction of satellites, rockets, and launch vehicles to the gathering and distribution of data.

Facility Use of ISRO The private sector is allowed to use ISRO facilities for a nominal fee and is encouraged to invest in the development of new infrastructure for the sector.

Increase in Percentage of Participation in the Global Space Economy The policy will assist India in significantly increasing its percentage of participation in the global space economy from less than 2% to 10% in the future.

The Present Situation Regarding India's Aerospace Industry

The space industry of India has garnered international acclaim for its capacity to construct satellites at lower costs than competitors. The following is a list of some of the most recent advancements that have been made in India's space sector:

Use of Outer Space for Peaceful and Civilian Purposes: As part of India's commitment to the Geneva Conference on Disarmament, the country continues to voice its support for the peaceful and civilian use of outer space and its opposition to the weaponization of any space capabilities or programmes.

ISRO: The Indian Space Research Organization is the sixth largest space agency in the world and has a very high rate of accomplishment.

Private Space Companies: India holds the fifth spot on the global list of countries with the highest number of space companies, with over 400 private space companies.

Defense Space Agency: India just recently established its Defense Space Agency (DSA), which is being supported by the Defence Space Research Organisation (DSRO). The Defense Systems Agency is tasked with developing weapons with the mission to "degrade, disrupt, destroy, or deceive an adversary's space capability."

The Defense Space Mission was officially kicked off by the Prime Minister of India at the Defence Expo 2022 in Gandhinagar.

Increasing Capabilities for Satellite Manufacturing The potential market for satellites manufactured in India is projected to be worth 3.2 billion US dollars by the year 2025. (up from USD 2.1 billion in 2020).

SAMVAD Program: ISRO launched its Student Outreach Program called SAMVAD at its Bengaluru facility in order to encourage and foster space research among young minds.

The Obstacles Facing the Space Industry

Lack of Regulations on Commercialization The rise of private companies launching satellites for internet services (such as Starlink-SpaceX) and space tourism is hastening the commercialization of outer space. However, there are very few regulations governing this process. Growing commercialization has the potential to bring about monopolisation in the future if an appropriate regulatory framework is not put in place.

The number of space exploration missions has led to an increase in the amount of space debris. Due to the high speed at which objects orbit the Earth, even relatively small pieces of debris have the potential to cause damage to orbiting spacecraft.

The rapid development of China's space industry has resulted in the country's launch of its very own satellite navigation system, known as BeiDou. It is possible that China's global position will be strengthened as a result of the participation of Belt Road Initiative (BRI) members in China's space sector, which could also lead to the weaponization of outer space.

A Widening Trust Gap Around the World An arms race for the weaponization of outer space is creating a climate of suspicion, competition, and aggressiveness around the world, which may eventually result in conflict. It is possible that the entire fleet of satellites, including those used for scientific exploration and communication services, could be put in jeopardy as a result of this.

-Foundation: "The Hindu"

Genome India Project


In the context of the Genome India Project, the government has set a goal to sequence 10,000 genomes by the end of the year 2023. (GIP).

Close to 7,000 genomes have been sequenced by the Department of Biotechnology, which is part of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Of these, 3,000 are already available for access by the general public.


Science and Technology for Grade Three

The following are the article's dimensions:

  • Regarding the Genome

  • Genome India Project

  • Importance of the Genome Project in India

  • Problems that have arisen with the Genome India Project

Concerning the Genome:

The term "genome" refers to the total collection of hereditary information or instructions that are carried by an organism.

DNA is what it is made of, and DNA is what carries the instructions for the development, functioning, growth, and reproduction of all living organisms. It is found in all living things.

The study of genomics, which entails the examination of genomes, has been responsible for a great number of significant advancements in a variety of fields, including medicine and biotechnology.

Genome Sequencing

Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) are the four nucleotides that make up an organism's DNA. Genome sequencing is the process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides, also known as bases, in a genome.

Genome India Project

There are over 4,600 distinct population groups that make up India's population, and many of these groups practise endogamy.

These populations have disease-causing mutations and genetic variations that are completely unique and cannot be compared to those of any other population.

The goal of the Genome India Project is to compile a database of Indian genomes so that researchers can study the distinct genetic variations that are present in the Indian population and use this knowledge to develop personalised pharmaceuticals and medical treatments.

The Human Genome Project, which successfully deciphered the entirety of the human genome, served as the impetus for the launch of this initiative in the year 2020. (HGP).

The Indian population is one of the most genetically diverse in the world, and this project's goal is to gain a better understanding of the genetic variations and disease-causing mutations that are specific to the Indian population.

Researchers are hoping to gain insights into the underlying genetic causes of diseases and develop more effective personalised therapies by sequencing and analysing these genomes.

The Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore's Centre for Brain Research is serving as the project's leader, and it is a collaborative effort that includes the participation of 20 institutions located throughout India.

There are comparable sequencing initiatives being carried out in a number of other nations, including the United States of America, China, and the United Kingdom.

The importance of the Genome India Project is as follows:

The Genome India Project (GIP) has significant repercussions in a variety of domains, including medicine, farming, and international science. The following are the most important aspects of its significance:

Personalized Medicine: The goal of the GIP is to develop personalised medicine that is anticipatory and modulatory of disease and is based on the genomes of patients. Interventions can be targeted more effectively, and diseases can be anticipated before they even begin to manifest themselves if disease propensities can be mapped to genetic variations.

Understanding the Genetic Basis of Disease Predispositions The GIP can be used to assist in understanding the genetic basis of disease predispositions in various populations. For instance, differences between genomes may explain why cardiovascular disease causes heart attacks in people from South Asia but strokes in people from most parts of Africa.

Agriculture: The GIP may be of use to the agricultural industry if it helps researchers understand the genetic basis of the susceptibility of plants to attack by insects, pests, and other factors that reduce productivity. This can lessen the need for reliance on chemical substances.

Global Science: The project is regarded as one of the most significant of its kind anywhere in the world due to the magnitude of its scope and the diversity it would introduce to the field of genetic research. A mapping project in one of the gene pools that contains the most genetic diversity in the world will also benefit global science.

Problems that have arisen with the Genome India Project

There is a concern that genetic mapping could be used to promote ideas of racial purity and justify discrimination. This raises the potential for scientific racism as well as the possibility of reinforcing existing stereotypes.

In a nation that is already torn apart by identity politics, genetic mapping may serve to further exacerbate existing social tensions and drive a wedge between different groups of people.

Data privacy and storage worries In the absence of a comprehensive data privacy bill in India, there are worries about the potential misuse of genetic information collected by the GIP. These worries centre on the potential for identity theft.

Ethical questions regarding gene editing and selective breeding: The project raises ethical questions regarding the potential for doctors to privately perform gene editing or selective breeding, both of which have a long history of being contentious.

There is a possibility that the genetic information that has been gathered through the GIP will be misused, either intentionally or unintentionally. This is a risk that must be taken into consideration. The gravity of these worries was brought home to the world in 2018 by the sentencing of a Chinese scientist who was responsible for the creation of the first gene-edited babies.

-Foundation: "The Hindu"

Preventive Detentions


In a recent judgement, India's highest court pointed out that the country's preventive detention laws are a holdover from the British colonial era and give the state arbitrary power.


GS-II: Governance (Constitutional Provisions, Fundamental Rights), GS-II: Polity and Governance (Constitutional Provisions) (Government Policies and Interventions)

The following are the article's dimensions:

  • Regarding the Practice of Preventive Detention in India

  • Objections to the practise of preventive detention

  • The case for using preventive detention as an intervention

  • Recent decision by the Supreme Court regarding preventive detention

Regarding the Practice of Preventive Detention in India

As its name implies, preventative detention is intended to stop a person from committing a crime in the future.

Article 22 addresses the following two categories of detention:



For reasons related to maintaining public order and state security, preventive detention and restrictions on personal liberty are permitted under the Constitution, specifically under Article 22 (3) (b).

According to Article 22 (4), the person who is being detained should be informed of the grounds of arrest. However, in the event that the authorities believe that it would be against the public interest to disclose certain facts, they are not required to reveal them. This applies both to preventive detention as well as to other types of detention.

The individual cannot be detained under preventive detention for more than three months unless permission to do so has been granted by an advisory board consisting of three judges of the Supreme Court.

The other way that the length of time spent in detention can be extended beyond three months is if the government decides to pass a law to allow for it.

Acts passed by the Parliament that allow for the period of preventive detention to be extended beyond three months are as follows:

The National Security Act of 1980 (also known as the NSA);

COFEPOSA, which stands for the Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, was passed in 1974.

Act for the Prevention of Unlawful Activities (UAPA) of 1967, etc.

Similar legislation that permits preventive detention has been passed by the legislatures of a number of states.

Objections to the practise of preventive detention

As a result of several instances of such laws being exploited inappropriately in India, preventive detention has emerged as a topic of concern regarding human rights.

The power of the state to exercise policing authority is symbolised by preventative detention.

The concept of preventive detention is not mentioned in the constitutions of any of the other democratic countries, and the only time such laws are implemented in democratic nations is in the event of an emergency.

The case for using preventive detention as an intervention

In India, arbitrary action taken by the state is prevented thanks to the 7th Schedule of the Constitution, which lays out the contexts in which preventive detention laws can be enacted and specifies the areas in which they can be implemented.

Only for reasons having to do with India's defence, its foreign relations, or its national security can laws allowing for preventive detention to be put into effect under the Union list.

In the Concurrent list, laws for preventive detention can only be enacted for reasons connected to the security of a state, the maintenance of public order, or the maintenance of essential supplies and services. These reasons can be found in the Concurrent list.

-Foundation: "The Hindu"

System for Monitoring the Hydrological Status and Future Forecasts (HydroSOS)


The Hydrological Status and Outlook System of the World Meteorological Organization provided a data analysis tool for simulation that was made available during the recently concluded United Nations Water Conference 2023.


First Year of High School Geography

The following are the article's dimensions:

  • The Hydrological Status and Outlook System (HydroSOS) explains the following:

  • Organization for Meteorological Cooperation (WMO)

  • Overview and Goals of the Hydrological Status and Outlook System (HydroSOS)

The Hydrological Status and Outlook System, also known as HydroSOS, is a project that was conceived of by the Commission for Hydrology and is managed by the WMO Hydrological Assembly.

Its purpose is to disseminate vital information on a global scale, which is required to assist water users in comprehending the state that the world's freshwater systems are in at the present time.

The National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) will be in charge of delivering HydroSOS, which will provide users with straightforward and easily accessible information regarding hydrology. These users include governmental bodies, basin managers, and funding institutions, amongst others.

The development of HydroSOS occurred in several phases:

The development of HydroSOS is going to take place in stages, with the first one being a pilot phase (2017-2021). During this stage of the project, pilot basins have been identified in both South Asia and Africa. The development of HydroSOS will proceed through a number of phases, including the following:

During the Pilot Phase (2017-2021), pilot basins were found in South Asia and Africa. This phase lasted for three years.

During the Development Phase (which will take place between 2021 and 2024), the primary objectives will be to develop an operational system and to expand coverage to more regions.

Phase of Implementation (2024-2026): During this phase, the primary focus will be on putting HydroSOS into operation at NMHSs and other relevant institutions all over the world.

Advantages of Using HydroSOS:

HydroSOS will provide essential information that can assist water managers in making more informed decisions regarding water management, which will result in improved water management.

HydroSOS will make it possible for better planning for the future by providing information on the hydrological status and outlook of freshwater systems. This will allow for better management of water resources.

HydroSOS will provide information that can help to reduce the risk of hydrological disasters such as floods and droughts. This will contribute to an improved disaster risk reduction effort.

Sharing of more data HydroSOS will promote sharing of more hydrological data, which is essential for efficient water management and will lead to more data being shared.

Organization for Meteorological Cooperation (WMO)

The World Meteorological Organization, or WMO for short, is an intergovernmental organisation with the mission of fostering international cooperation on matters pertaining to weather, climate, and water.

The year 1950 marked the beginning of its operations, which are carried out with the support of the United Nations.


Making international collaboration and coordination in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and other related disciplines easier to achieve.

Advancing the process of meteorological and hydrological observation and measurement standardisation.

fostering innovation in the production of meteorological and hydrological information, products, and services, as well as facilitating their exchange.

Offering advice and assistance to National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and other organisations in the course of the execution of the programmes and activities they are responsible for.

Providing financial assistance for research and development projects that are weather, climate, and water-related.


The creation of global observational systems for weather, climate, and water conditions.

The provision of climate and weather services to aid in decision-making across a variety of industries, including agriculture, aviation, energy, and disaster risk reduction, among others.

Coordination of international research programmes such as the Global Atmosphere Watch and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (GAW).

Management of international agreements on climate, weather, and water issues, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. These conventions include the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).


The World Meteorological Organization is made up of 193 different member states and territories, each of which is represented by their respective National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs).

The World Meteorological Congress is the highest body of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It convenes once every four years to determine the WMO's long-term goals and elect new leaders for the organisation.

The Secretariat, which is led by the Secretary-General, is the part of the organisation that is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the organisation.

When it comes to resolving issues that affect people all over the world, weather, climate, and water all play a significant part. It does this by providing essential information and services to support decision-making in various sectors and by assisting countries in building their capacity to address risks and opportunities related to climate and weather. This is accomplished through the programmes and activities that it runs.

-Foundation: "The Hindu"


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